In the United States, medical and surgical care of the feet and ankles are mainly provided by two groups of physicians: orthopedic surgeons and podiatrists.
In general, an orthopedic surgeon is a Doctor of Medicine that specializes in medical and surgical management of all of the bones and joints of the entire body (global musculoskeletal health). Their training includes medical school, has 5+ years in an orthopedic surgical residency, one or more fellowship years, and board certification.
Podiatry is a branch of medicine devoted to the study, diagnosis, and medical and surgical treatment of the foot, ankle and lower extremity.
To become a Doctor of Podiatric Medicine, a candidate must complete: a Bachelor's Degree, 4+ years in Podiatryt School, 3+ years in a surgical based residency, board certification and licensing. While a Podiatrist might not be an M.D., they are part of the medical community and have surgical training.
Chiropody (from English chiro- for hand and Greek -pody for foot) has both ancient and modern elements in its development. Stemming from an ancient Egyptian art, it was practiced by journeymen at fairs, markets and in the street. In the 1800's in England it became a organized profession, and subsequently evolved into the practice of podiatry (though many countries still use the terms interchangeably). The term chiropody itself came about in the 19th century.
Reflexology is a type of massage that involves applying different amounts of pressure to the feet, hands, and ears, based on a theory that these body parts are connected to certain organs and body systems. It rests on the ancient Chinese belief that qi (vital energy), flows through each person. Stress blocks the flow of qi, and that blockage can cause an imbalance in the body that leads to illness. Reflexology aims to keep qi flowing through the body, keeping it balanced and disease free.
In Chinese medicine, different body parts correspond with different pressure points on the body. Reflexologists use maps of these points in the feet, hands, and ears to determine where they should apply pressure. They believe their touch sends energy flowing through a person’s body until it reaches the area in need of healing.
- Sodium in the diet is an electrolyte (the ion Na+) which is very different from Sodium the metal element (symbol Na). Electrolytes are electrically charged minerals that help maintain fluid levels and the balance of chemicals in your body called acids and bases. Sodium also helps your nerves and muscles work properly.
- You get most of the sodium you need in your diet. Once your body takes in enough sodium, the kidneys get rid of the rest in your urine. If your sodium blood levels are too high or too low, it may mean that you have a problem with your kidneys, dehydration, or another medical condition.